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V.O. (Voiceover)

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What is V.O. (Voiceover) in Screenwriting?

Voiceover, also known as V.O., is a technique used in screenwriting where a character’s thoughts, feelings, or narration are conveyed through spoken words that are not directly connected to the onscreen action.

A voiceover is a tool in screenwriting. It allows for words spoken by an unseen person. This person is not in the scene at that time. A voiceover can also tell us what a character thinks or feels.

It gives more details about the story, too. Often, it comes from books turned into movies when they have a first-person style of writing.

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Different ways to use voiceover in a script

Voiceover in a script can be used in different ways to enhance the storytelling and provide valuable insights into the characters and the narrative. Here are some ways voiceover can be utilized:

  1. Revealing inner thoughts and feelings: Voiceover can give audience direct access to a character’s thoughts, emotions, and personal reflections.
  2. Providing narration: Voiceover can act as a narrator, guiding the audience through the story by providing context, background information, or explaining events.
  3. Creating atmosphere: Voiceover can set the tone or create a specific mood for a scene or an entire film.
  4. Contrasting with onscreen action: Voiceover can present contrasting perspectives or insights that add depth to what is happening onscreen.
  5. Establishing time and place: Voiceover can help establish the time period and location of a scene or provide necessary historical or geographical context.
  6. Serving as exposition: While voiceover should be used sparingly, it can be useful for conveying essential information that cannot be shown visually.

Utilizing voiceover as interior monologue

Voiceover can be utilized as interior monologue in screenwriting to give insight into a character’s thoughts and emotions. By using voiceover, the audience can hear what the character is thinking, providing a deeper understanding of their motivations and feelings.

This technique is commonly used when adapting source material like novels, where the inner thoughts of the main character are crucial to the story. Voiceover as interior monologue adds depth and dimension to a screenplay, allowing viewers to connect with characters on a more intimate level.

It should be used sparingly and purposefully, enhancing the narrative rather than detracting from it.

Differentiating Voiceover (V. O. ) and Off-Screen (O

Voiceover (V.O.) refers to dialogue or narration that is spoken by a character who is not physically present or seen onscreen, while Off-Screen (O.S.) refers to sounds coming from characters or objects that are happening outside of the current scene.

Explanation of the differences between V.O. and O.S.

Voiceover (V.O.) and Off-Screen (O.S.) are two different ways of using dialogue in screenwriting. Voiceover is when we hear a character’s thoughts or narration, spoken by someone who is not physically seen on screen.

It gives us insight into their inner world, feelings, and opinions. On the other hand, Off-Screen refers to characters speaking or making noise but not being seen in the scene. They may be talking from another room or behind a closed door.

While both techniques involve dialogue from unseen characters, voiceover focuses more on interior monologue and providing additional context to the story, whereas off-screen dialogue is used to show characters interacting with each other or reacting to events happening off-camera.

Proper usage and examples of V.O. and O.S.

Voiceover (V.O.) and Off-Screen (O.S.) are both important techniques in screenwriting. Here’s how they are used properly:

  1. Voiceover (V.O.):
  • Voiceover is when an unseen character’s dialogue provides narration, inner thoughts, or commentary.
  • It can be used to reveal a character’s emotions, motivations, or backstory.
  • Examples: A character talking about their life while we see them going about their daily routine or a narrator explaining historical context during a period piece.
  1. Off-Screen (O.S.):
  • Off – Screen refers to dialogue spoken by characters who are not visible on the screen at that moment.
  • It is used to show conversations happening in the same location but out of sight.
  • Examples: Two characters talking in another room while the camera focuses on a different scene or hearing someone’s voice over a phone call.

Formatting Voiceover in a Script

Formatting voiceover in a script requires following specific guidelines for screenplay format and incorporating tips for effective use.

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Guidelines for formatting voiceover in screenplay format

Voiceover in screenplays should be properly formatted to ensure clarity and readability. Here are some guidelines to follow:

  1. Use the term “VOICEOVER” or “V.O.” in all caps at the beginning of the line, followed by a colon.
  2. Place the character’s name in parentheses after the V.O., indicating who is speaking the voiceover.
  3. Include brief and specific descriptions within parentheses to indicate how the voiceover should sound (e.g., “(whispering)”, “(cheerful)”, “(narrator)”).
  4. Begin each new paragraph whenever there is a change in speaker or when another character speaks after a voiceover.
  5. Indent each line of voiceover dialogue about 1.5 inches from the left margin.
  6. Keep voiceover lines concise and focused, avoiding excessive exposition or unnecessary details.
  7. Use proper grammar and punctuation for the voiceover dialogue, just like you would with regular dialogue.

Tips for effectively incorporating voiceover into the script

To effectively incorporate voiceover into your script, consider the following tips:

  1. Use voiceover sparingly: Avoid excessive use of voiceover as it can become distracting and disrupt the flow of the narrative.
  2. Serve a purpose: Ensure that each instance of voiceover serves a specific purpose, such as revealing a character’s inner thoughts or providing important information.
  3. Create depth and dimension: Utilize voiceover to add depth and dimension to your screenplay by providing additional context or guiding the audience’s understanding of the story.
  4. Maintain consistency: If you choose to use voiceover narration, be consistent in its usage throughout the script to create a cohesive storytelling experience.
  5. Consider source material: When adapting source material like a novel, determine if using voiceover is necessary to capture the first-person perspective or convey important details from the original work.
  6. Craft engaging dialogue: Write engaging and compelling dialogue for your voiceover to keep the audience interested and invested in the story.
  7. Collaborate with actors: Work closely with actors who will be performing the voiceover to ensure that their delivery enhances the impact of the dialogue.
  8. Balance with other elements: Find a balance between voiceover, on-screen action, dialogue, and other storytelling elements to create a well-rounded script.
  9. Edit ruthlessly: Review your script critically and remove any unnecessary or redundant instances of voiceover narration that do not contribute significantly to the story.
  10. Test it out: Consider conducting table reads or seeking feedback from others to gauge how effectively the voiceover is enhancing your screenplay’s overall impact.


In conclusion, voiceover (V.O.) in screenwriting is dialogue spoken by an unseen character that is detached from the main action on-screen. It can be used to reveal a character’s thoughts and feelings, provide additional context or guide the audience’s understanding of the story.

When used effectively, voiceover adds depth and dimension to a screenplay.


What is a Voiceover (V.O.) in screenwriting?

Voiceover, commonly referred to as V.O., is a screenwriting technique that effectively conveys a character’s thoughts, feelings, or narration through spoken words, detached from the onscreen action. It adds depth and dimension to the storytelling, enhancing the overall cinematic experience.

Who does the voice acting for a Voiceover (V.O.)?

A voice artist or an actor can perform the voice acting for a Voiceover (V.O.).

Can you tell me more about how V.O. works during film production?

In most cases, voiceover is recorded in post-production however in some cases, it can be recorded on set alongside regular production.